summaryrefslogtreecommitdiffstats
path: root/dmemcache.inc
blob: 8e253dd525a1941bb2c563a68dd83c9039cb8d25 (plain)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
<?php

/**
 * @file
 * A memcache API for Drupal.
 *
 * This file contains core dmemcache functions required by:
 *   memcache.inc
 *   memcache-lock.inc
 *   memcache-lock-code.inc
 */

define('MEMCACHED_E2BIG', 37);

global $_dmemcache_stats;
$_dmemcache_stats = array('all' => array(), 'ops' => array());

/**
 * Place an item into memcache.
 *
 * @param string $key
 *   The string with which you will retrieve this item later.
 * @param mixed $value
 *   The item to be stored.
 * @param int $exp
 *   Parameter expire is expiration time in seconds. If it's 0, the item never
 *   expires (but memcached server doesn't guarantee this item to be stored all
 *   the time, it could be deleted from the cache to make place for other
 *   items).
 * @param string $bin
 *   The name of the Drupal subsystem that is making this call. Examples could
 *   be 'cache', 'alias', 'taxonomy term' etc. It is possible to map different
 *   $bin values to different memcache servers.
 * @param object $mc
 *   Optionally pass in the memcache object.  Normally this value is determined
 *   automatically based on the bin the object is being stored to.
 *
 * @return bool
 *   TRUE on succes, FALSE otherwise.
 */
function dmemcache_set($key, $value, $exp = 0, $bin = 'cache', $mc = NULL) {
  $collect_stats = dmemcache_stats_init();

  $full_key = dmemcache_key($key, $bin);

  $rc = FALSE;
  if ($mc || ($mc = dmemcache_object($bin))) {
    if ($mc instanceof Memcached) {
      $rc = $mc->set($full_key, $value, $exp);
      if (empty($rc)) {
        // If there was a MEMCACHED_E2BIG error, split the value into pieces
        // and cache them individually.
        if ($mc->getResultCode() == MEMCACHED_E2BIG) {
          $rc = _dmemcache_set_pieces($key, $value, $exp, $bin, $mc);
        }
      }
    }
    else {
      // The PECL Memcache library throws an E_NOTICE level error, which
      // $php_errormsg doesn't catch, so we need to log it ourselves.
      // Catch it with our own error handler.
      drupal_static_reset('_dmemcache_error_handler');
      set_error_handler('_dmemcache_error_handler');
      $rc = $mc->set($full_key, $value, MEMCACHE_COMPRESSED, $exp);
      // Restore the Drupal error handler.
      restore_error_handler();
      if (empty($rc)) {
        // If the object was too big, split the value into pieces and cache
        // them individually.
        $dmemcache_errormsg = &drupal_static('_dmemcache_error_handler');
        if (!empty($dmemcache_errormsg) && (strpos($dmemcache_errormsg, 'SERVER_ERROR object too large for cache') !== FALSE || strpos($dmemcache_errormsg, 'SERVER_ERROR out of memory storing object') !== FALSE)) {
          $rc = _dmemcache_set_pieces($key, $value, $exp, $bin, $mc);
        }
      }
    }
  }

  if ($collect_stats) {
    dmemcache_stats_write('set', $bin, array($full_key => $rc));
  }

  _dmemcache_write_debug('set', $bin, $full_key, $rc);

  return $rc;
}

/**
 * A temporary error handler which keeps track of the most recent error.
 */
function _dmemcache_error_handler($errno, $errstr) {
  $dmemcache_errormsg = &drupal_static(__FUNCTION__);
  $dmemcache_errormsg = $errstr;
  return TRUE;
}

/**
 *  Split a large item into pieces and place them into memcache
 *
 * @param string $key
 *   The string with which you will retrieve this item later.
 * @param mixed $value
 *   The item to be stored.
 * @param int $exp
 *   (optional) Expiration time in seconds. If it's 0, the item never expires
 *   (but memcached server doesn't guarantee this item to be stored all the
 *   time, it could be deleted from the cache to make place for other items).
 * @param string $bin
 *   (optional) The name of the Drupal subsystem that is making this call.
 *   Examples could be 'cache', 'alias', 'taxonomy term' etc. It is possible to
 *   map different $bin values to different memcache servers.
 * @param object $mc
 *   (optional) The memcache object. Normally this value is
 *   determined automatically based on the bin the object is being stored to.
 *
 * @return bool
 */
function _dmemcache_set_pieces($key, $value, $exp = 0, $bin = 'cache', $mc = NULL) {
  static $recursion = 0;
  if (!empty($value->multi_part_data) || !empty($value->multi_part_pieces)) {
    // Prevent an infinite loop.
    return FALSE;
  }

  // Recursion happens when __dmemcache_piece_cache outgrows the largest
  // memcache slice (1 MiB by default) -- prevent an infinite loop and later
  // generate a watchdog error.
  if ($recursion) {
    return FALSE;
  }
  $recursion++;

  $full_key = dmemcache_key($key);

  // Cache the name of this key so if it is deleted later we know to also
  // delete the cache pieces.
  if (!dmemcache_piece_cache_set($full_key, $exp)) {
    // We're caching a LOT of large items. Our piece_cache has exceeded the
    // maximum memcache object size (default of 1 MiB).
    $piece_cache = &drupal_static('dmemcache_piece_cache', array());
    register_shutdown_function('watchdog', 'memcache', 'Too many over-sized cache items (!count) has caused the dmemcache_piece_cache to exceed the maximum memcache object size (default of 1 MiB). Now relying on memcache auto-expiration to eventually clean up over-sized cache pieces upon deletion.', array('!count' => count($piece_cache)), WATCHDOG_ERROR);
  }

  if (variable_get('memcache_log_data_pieces', 2)) {
    timer_start('memcache_split_data');
  }

  // We need to split the item into pieces, so convert it into a string.
  if (is_string($value)) {
    $data = $value;
    $serialized = FALSE;
  }
  else {
    $serialize_function = dmemcache_serialize();
    $data = $serialize_function($value);
    $serialized = TRUE;
  }

  // Account for any metadata stored alongside the data.
  $max_len = variable_get('memcache_data_max_length', 1048576) - (512 + strlen($full_key));
  $pieces = str_split($data, $max_len);

  $piece_count = count($pieces);

  // Create a placeholder item containing data about the pieces.
  $cache = new stdClass;
  // $key gets run through dmemcache_key() later inside dmemcache_set().
  $cache->cid = $key;
  $cache->created = REQUEST_TIME;
  $cache->expire = $exp;
  $cache->data = new stdClass;
  $cache->data->serialized = $serialized;
  $cache->data->piece_count = $piece_count;
  $cache->multi_part_data = TRUE;
  $result = dmemcache_set($cache->cid, $cache, $exp, $bin, $mc);

  // Create a cache item for each piece of data.
  foreach ($pieces as $id => $piece) {
    $cache = new stdClass;
    $cache->cid = _dmemcache_key_piece($key, $id);
    $cache->created = REQUEST_TIME;
    $cache->expire = $exp;
    $cache->data = $piece;
    $cache->multi_part_piece = TRUE;

    $result &= dmemcache_set($cache->cid, $cache, $exp, $bin, $mc);
  }

  if (variable_get('memcache_log_data_pieces', 2) && $piece_count >= variable_get('memcache_log_data_pieces', 2)) {
    if (function_exists('format_size')) {
      $data_size = format_size(strlen($data));
    }
    else {
      $data_size = number_format(strlen($data)) . ' byte';
    }
    register_shutdown_function('watchdog', 'memcache', 'Spent !time ms splitting !bytes object into !pieces pieces, cid = !key', array('!time' => timer_read('memcache_split_data'), '!bytes' => $data_size, '!pieces' => $piece_count, '!key' => dmemcache_key($key, $bin)), WATCHDOG_WARNING);
  }

  $recursion--;

  // TRUE if all pieces were saved correctly.
  return $result;
}

/**
 * Add an item into memcache.
 *
 * @param string $key
 *   The string with which you will retrieve this item later.
 * @param mixed $value
 *   The item to be stored.
 * @param int $exp
 *   (optional) Expiration time in seconds. If it's 0, the item never expires
 *   (but memcached server doesn't guarantee this item to be stored all the
 *   time, it could be deleted from the cache to make place for other items).
 * @param string $bin
 *   (optional) The name of the Drupal subsystem that is making this call.
 *   Examples could be 'cache', 'alias', 'taxonomy term' etc. It is possible
 *   to map different $bin values to different memcache servers.
 * @param object $mc
 *   (optional) The memcache object. Normally this value is
 *   determined automatically based on the bin the object is being stored to.
 * @param bool $flag
 *   (optional) If using the older memcache PECL extension as opposed to the
 *   newer memcached PECL extension, the MEMCACHE_COMPRESSED flag can be set
 *   to use zlib to store a compressed copy of the item.  This flag option is
 *   completely ignored when using the newer memcached PECL extension.
 *
 * @return bool
 *   FALSE if placing the item into memcache failed.
 */
function dmemcache_add($key, $value, $exp = 0, $bin = 'cache', $mc = NULL, $flag = FALSE) {
  $collect_stats = dmemcache_stats_init();

  $full_key = dmemcache_key($key, $bin);

  $rc = FALSE;
  if ($mc || ($mc = dmemcache_object($bin))) {
    if ($mc instanceof Memcached) {
      $rc = $mc->add($full_key, $value, $exp);
    }
    else {
      $rc = $mc->add($full_key, $value, $flag, $exp);
    }
  }

  if ($collect_stats) {
    dmemcache_stats_write('add', $bin, array($full_key => $rc));
  }

  _dmemcache_write_debug('add', $bin, $full_key, $rc);

  return $rc;
}

/**
 * Retrieve a value from the cache.
 *
 * @param string $key
 *   The key with which the item was stored.
 * @param string $bin
 *   The bin in which the item was stored.
 *
 * @return mixed
 *   The item which was originally saved or FALSE
 */
function dmemcache_get($key, $bin = 'cache', $mc = NULL) {
  $collect_stats = dmemcache_stats_init();

  $result = FALSE;

  $full_key = dmemcache_key($key, $bin);
  if ($mc || $mc = dmemcache_object($bin)) {
    $track_errors = ini_set('track_errors', '1');
    $php_errormsg = '';

    $result = @$mc->get($full_key);
    // This is a multi-part value.
    if (is_object($result) && !empty($result->multi_part_data)) {
      $result = _dmemcache_get_pieces($result->data, $result->cid, $bin, $mc);
    }

    if (!empty($php_errormsg)) {
      register_shutdown_function('watchdog', 'memcache', 'Exception caught in dmemcache_get: !msg', array('!msg' => $php_errormsg), WATCHDOG_WARNING);
      $php_errormsg = '';
    }
    ini_set('track_errors', $track_errors);
  }

  if ($collect_stats) {
    dmemcache_stats_write('get', $bin, array($full_key => (bool) $result));
  }

  _dmemcache_write_debug('get', $bin, $full_key, (bool) $result);

  return $result;
}

/**
 * Retrieve a value from the cache.
 *
 * @param $item
 *   The placeholder cache item from _dmemcache_set_pieces().
 * @param $key
 *   The key with which the item was stored.
 * @param string $bin
 *   (optional) The bin in which the item was stored.
 * @param object $mc
 *   (optional) The memcache object. Normally this value is
 *   determined automatically based on the bin the object is being stored to.
 *
 * @return object|bool
 *   The item which was originally saved or FALSE.
 */
function _dmemcache_get_pieces($item, $key, $bin = 'cache', $mc = NULL) {
  // Create a list of keys for the pieces of data.
  for ($id = 0; $id < $item->piece_count; $id++) {
    $keys[] = _dmemcache_key_piece($key, $id);
  }

  // Retrieve all the pieces of data.
  $pieces = dmemcache_get_multi($keys, $bin, $mc);
  if (count($pieces) != $item->piece_count) {
    // Some of the pieces don't exist, so our data cannot be reconstructed.
    return FALSE;
  }

  // Append all of the pieces together.
  $data = '';
  foreach ($pieces as $piece) {
    $data .= $piece->data;
  }
  unset($pieces);

  // If necessary unserialize the item.
  if (empty($item->serialized)) {
    return $data;
  }
  else {
    $unserialize_function = dmemcache_unserialize();
    return $unserialize_function($data);
  }
}

/**
 * Generates a key name for a multi-part data piece based on the sequence ID.
 *
 * @param int $id
 *   The sequence ID of the data piece.
 * @param int $key
 *   The original CID of the cache item.
 *
 * @return string
 */
function _dmemcache_key_piece($key, $id) {
  return dmemcache_key('_multi'. (string)$id . "-$key");
}

/**
 * Retrieve multiple values from the cache.
 *
 * @param array $keys
 *   The keys with which the items were stored.
 * @param string $bin
 *   The bin in which the item was stored.
 *
 * @return mixed
 *   The item which was originally saved or FALSE
 */
function dmemcache_get_multi($keys, $bin = 'cache', $mc = NULL) {
  $collect_stats = dmemcache_stats_init();
  $multi_stats = array();

  $full_keys = array();

  foreach ($keys as $key => $cid) {
    $full_key = dmemcache_key($cid, $bin);
    $full_keys[$cid] = $full_key;

    if ($collect_stats) {
      $multi_stats[$full_key] = FALSE;
    }
  }

  $results = array();
  if ($mc || ($mc = dmemcache_object($bin))) {
    if ($mc instanceof Memcached) {
      if (PHP_MAJOR_VERSION >= 7) {
        // See https://www.drupal.org/node/2728427
        $results = $mc->getMulti($full_keys, Memcached::GET_PRESERVE_ORDER);
      }
      else {
        $cas_tokens = NULL;
        $results = $mc->getMulti($full_keys, $cas_tokens, Memcached::GET_PRESERVE_ORDER);
      }
    }
    elseif ($mc instanceof Memcache) {
      $track_errors = ini_set('track_errors', '1');
      $php_errormsg = '';

      $results = @$mc->get($full_keys);

      if (!empty($php_errormsg)) {
        register_shutdown_function('watchdog', 'memcache', 'Exception caught in dmemcache_get_multi: !msg', array('!msg' => $php_errormsg), WATCHDOG_WARNING);
        $php_errormsg = '';
      }
      ini_set('track_errors', $track_errors);

      // Order is not guaranteed, map responses to order of requests.
      if (is_array($results)) {
        $keys = array_fill_keys($full_keys, NULL);
        $results = array_merge($keys, $results);
      }
    }
  }

  // If $results is FALSE, convert it to an empty array.
  if (!$results) {
    $results = array();
  }

  if ($collect_stats) {
    foreach ($multi_stats as $key => $value) {
      $multi_stats[$key] = isset($results[$key]) ? TRUE : FALSE;
    }
  }

  // Convert the full keys back to the cid.
  $cid_results = array();
  $cid_lookup = array_flip($full_keys);
  foreach ($results as $key => $value) {
    // This is a multi-part value.
    if (is_object($value) && !empty($value->multi_part_data)) {
      $value = _dmemcache_get_pieces($value->data, $value->cid, $bin, $mc);
    }
    $cid_results[$cid_lookup[$key]] = $value;
  }

  if ($collect_stats) {
    dmemcache_stats_write('getMulti', $bin, $multi_stats);
  }

  _dmemcache_write_debug('getMulti', $bin, $full_key, !empty($results));

  return $cid_results;
}

/**
 * Deletes an item from the cache.
 *
 * @param string $key
 *   The key with which the item was stored.
 * @param string $bin
 *   The bin in which the item was stored.
 *
 * @return bool
 *   Returns TRUE on success or FALSE on failure.
 */
function dmemcache_delete($key, $bin = 'cache', $mc = NULL) {
  $collect_stats = dmemcache_stats_init();

  $full_keys = dmemcache_key($key, $bin, TRUE);

  $rc = FALSE;
  if ($mc || ($mc = dmemcache_object($bin))) {
    foreach ($full_keys as $fk) {
      $rc = $mc->delete($fk, 0);

      if ($rc) {
        // If the delete succeeded, we now check to see if this item has
        //  multiple pieces also needing to be cleaned up. If the delete failed,
        // we assume these keys have already expired or been deleted (memcache
        // will auto-expire eventually if we're wrong).
        if ($piece_cache = dmemcache_piece_cache_get($fk)) {
          // First, remove from the piece_cache so we don't try and delete it
          // again in another thread, then delete the actual cache data pieces.
          dmemcache_piece_cache_set($fk, NULL);
          $next_id = 0;
          do {
            if ($inner_rc) {
              _dmemcache_write_debug("delete", $bin, $full_key, $inner_rc);
            }
            // Generate the cid of the next data piece.
            $piece_key = _dmemcache_key_piece($key, $next_id);
            $full_key = dmemcache_key($piece_key, $bin);
            $next_id++;

            // Keep deleting pieces until the operation fails. We accept that
            // this could lead to orphaned pieces as memcache will auto-expire
            // them eventually.
          } while ($inner_rc = $mc->delete($full_key, 0));
          _dmemcache_write_debug("delete", $bin, $full_key, $inner_rc);

          // Perform garbage collection for keys memcache has auto-expired. If
          // we don't do this, this variable could grow over enough time as a
          // slow memory leak.
          // @todo: Consider moving this to hook_cron() and requiring people to
          // enable the memcache module.
          timer_start('memcache_gc_piece_cache');
          $gc_counter = 0;
          $piece_cache = &drupal_static('dmemcache_piece_cache', array());
          foreach ($piece_cache as $cid => $expires) {
            if (REQUEST_TIME > $expires) {
              $gc_counter++;
              dmemcache_piece_cache_set($cid, NULL);
            }
          }
          if ($gc_counter) {
            register_shutdown_function('watchdog', 'memcache', 'Spent !time ms in garbage collection cleaning !count stale keys from the dmemcache_piece_cache.', array('!time' => timer_read('memcache_gc_piece_cache'), '!count' => $gc_counter), WATCHDOG_WARNING);
          }
        }
      }
      if ($collect_stats) {
        dmemcache_stats_write('delete', $bin, array($fk => $rc));
      }
      _dmemcache_write_debug('delete', $bin, $fk, $rc);
    }
  }

  return $rc;
}

/**
 * Flush all stored items.
 *
 * Immediately invalidates all existing items. dmemcache_flush doesn't actually
 * free any resources, it only marks all the items as expired, so occupied
 * memory will be overwritten by new items.
 *
 * @param string $bin
 *   The bin to flush. Note that this will flush all bins mapped to the same
 *   server as $bin. There is no way at this time to empty just one bin.
 *
 * @return bool
 *   Returns TRUE on success or FALSE on failure.
 */
function dmemcache_flush($bin = 'cache', $mc = NULL) {
  $collect_stats = dmemcache_stats_init();

  $rc = FALSE;
  if ($mc || ($mc = dmemcache_object($bin))) {
    $rc = $mc->flush();
  }

  if ($collect_stats) {
    dmemcache_stats_write('flush', $bin, array('' => $rc));
  }

  _dmemcache_write_debug('flush', $bin, $full_key, $rc);

  return $rc;
}

/**
 * Retrieves statistics recorded during memcache operations.
 *
 * @param string $stats_bin
 *   The bin to retrieve statistics for.
 * @param string $stats_type
 *   The type of statistics to retrieve when using the Memcache extension.
 * @param bool $aggregate
 *   Whether to aggregate statistics.
 */
function dmemcache_stats($stats_bin = 'cache', $stats_type = 'default', $aggregate = FALSE) {
  $memcache_bins = variable_get('memcache_bins', array('cache' => 'default'));
  // The stats_type can be over-loaded with an integer slab id, if doing a
  // cachedump.  We know we're doing a cachedump if $slab is non-zero.
  $slab = (int) $stats_type;
  $stats = array();

  foreach ($memcache_bins as $bin => $target) {
    if ($stats_bin == $bin) {
      if ($mc = dmemcache_object($bin)) {
        if ($mc instanceof Memcached) {
          $stats[$bin] = $mc->getStats();
        }
        // The PHP Memcache extension 3.x version throws an error if the stats
        // type is NULL or not in {reset, malloc, slabs, cachedump, items,
        // sizes}. If $stats_type is 'default', then no parameter should be
        // passed to the Memcache memcache_get_extended_stats() function.
        elseif ($mc instanceof Memcache) {
          if ($stats_type == 'default' || $stats_type == '') {
            $stats[$bin] = $mc->getExtendedStats();
          }
          // If $slab isn't zero, then we are dumping the contents of a
          // specific cache slab.
          elseif (!empty($slab)) {
            $stats[$bin] = $mc->getStats('cachedump', $slab);
          }
          else {
            $stats[$bin] = $mc->getExtendedStats($stats_type);
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }
  // Optionally calculate a sum-total for all servers in the current bin.
  if ($aggregate) {
    // Some variables don't logically aggregate.
    $no_aggregate = array(
      'pid',
      'time',
      'version',
      'pointer_size',
      'accepting_conns',
      'listen_disabled_num',
    );
    foreach ($stats as $bin => $servers) {
      if (is_array($servers)) {
        foreach ($servers as $server) {
          if (is_array($server)) {
            foreach ($server as $key => $value) {
              if (!in_array($key, $no_aggregate)) {
                if (isset($stats[$bin]['total'][$key])) {
                  $stats[$bin]['total'][$key] += $value;
                }
                else {
                  $stats[$bin]['total'][$key] = $value;
                }
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }
  return $stats;
}

/**
 * Determine which memcache extension to use: memcache or memcached.
 *
 * By default prefer the 'Memcache' PHP extension, though the default can be
 * overridden by setting memcache_extension in settings.php.
 */
function dmemcache_extension() {
  static $extension = NULL;
  if ($extension === NULL) {
    // If an extension is specified in settings.php, use that when available.
    $preferred = variable_get('memcache_extension', NULL);
    if (isset($preferred) && class_exists($preferred)) {
      $extension = ucfirst(strtolower($preferred));
    }
    // If no extension is set, default to Memcache.
    elseif (class_exists('Memcache')) {
      $extension = 'Memcache';
    }
    elseif (class_exists('Memcached')) {
      $extension = 'Memcached';
    }
    else {
      $extension = FALSE;
    }
  }
  return $extension;
}

/**
 * Determine which serialize extension to use: serialize (none), igbinary,
 * or msgpack.
 *
 * By default we prefer the igbinary extension, then the msgpack extension,
 * then the core serialize functions. This can be overridden in settings.php.
 */
function dmemcache_serialize_extension() {
  static $extension = NULL;
  if ($extension === NULL) {
    $preferred = strtolower(variable_get('memcache_serialize', NULL));
    // Fastpath if we're forcing php's own serialize function.
    if ($preferred == 'serialize') {
      $extension = $preferred;
    }
    // Otherwise, find an available extension favoring configuration.
    else {
      $igbinary_available = extension_loaded('igbinary');
      $msgpack_available = extension_loaded('msgpack');
      if ($preferred == 'igbinary' && $igbinary_available) {
        $extension = $preferred;
      }
      elseif ($preferred == 'msgpack' && $msgpack_available) {
        $extension = $preferred;
      }
      else {
        // No (valid) serialize extension specified, try igbinary.
        if ($igbinary_available) {
          $extension = 'igbinary';
        }
        // Next try msgpack.
        else if ($msgpack_available) {
          $extension = 'msgpack';
        }
        // Finally fall back to core serialize.
        else {
          $extension = 'serialize';
        }
      }
    }
  }
  return $extension;
}

/**
 * Return proper serialize function.
 */
function dmemcache_serialize() {
  switch (dmemcache_serialize_extension()) {
    case 'igbinary':
      return 'igbinary_serialize';
    case 'msgpack':
      return 'msgpack_pack';
    default:
      return 'serialize';
  }
}

/**
 * Return proper unserialize function.
 */
function dmemcache_unserialize() {
  switch (dmemcache_serialize_extension()) {
    case 'igbinary':
      return 'igbinary_unserialize';
    case 'msgpack':
      return 'msgpack_unpack';
    default:
      return 'unserialize';
  }
}

/**
 * Return a new memcache instance.
 */
function dmemcache_instance($bin = 'cache') {
  static $error = FALSE;
  $extension = dmemcache_extension();
  if ($extension == 'Memcache') {
    return new Memcache();
  }
  elseif ($extension == 'Memcached') {
    if (variable_get('memcache_persistent', TRUE)) {
      $memcache = new Memcached($bin);
    }
    else {
      $memcache = new Memcached;
    }
    $default_opts = array(
      Memcached::OPT_COMPRESSION => FALSE,
      Memcached::OPT_DISTRIBUTION => Memcached::DISTRIBUTION_CONSISTENT,
    );
    foreach ($default_opts as $key => $value) {
      $memcache->setOption($key, $value);
    }
    // See README.txt for setting custom Memcache options when using the
    // memcached PECL extension.
    $memconf = variable_get('memcache_options', array());
    foreach ($memconf as $key => $value) {
      $memcache->setOption($key, $value);
    }
    if (($sasl_username = variable_get('memcache_sasl_username', '')) && ($sasl_password = variable_get('memcache_sasl_password', ''))) {
      $memcache->setSaslAuthData($sasl_username, $sasl_password);
    }
    return $memcache;
  }
  else {
    if (!$error) {
      register_shutdown_function('watchdog', 'memcache', 'You must enable the PHP <a href="http://php.net/manual/en/book.memcache.php">memcache</a> (recommended) or <a href="http://php.net/manual/en/book.memcached.php">memcached</a> extension to use memcache.inc.', array(), WATCHDOG_ERROR);
      $error = TRUE;
    }
  }
  return FALSE;
}

/**
 * Initiate a connection to memcache.
 *
 * @param object $memcache
 *   A memcache instance obtained through dmemcache_instance.
 * @param string $server
 *   A server string of the format "localhost:11211" or
 *   "unix:///path/to/socket".
 * @param bool $connection
 *   TRUE or FALSE, whether the $memcache instance already has at least one
 *   open connection.
 *
 * @return bool
 *   TRUE or FALSE if connection was successful.
 */
function dmemcache_connect($memcache, $server, $connection) {
  static $memcache_persistent = NULL;

  $extension = dmemcache_extension();

  @list($host, $port) = explode(':', trim($server));
  if (empty($host)) {
    register_shutdown_function('watchdog', 'memcache', 'You have specified an invalid address of "!server" in settings.php. Please review README.txt for proper configuration.', array('!server' => $server, '!ip' => t('127.0.0.1:11211'), '!host' => t('localhost:11211'), '!socket' => t('unix:///path/to/socket')), WATCHDOG_WARNING);
  }

  if (!isset($memcache_persistent)) {
    $memcache_persistent = variable_get('memcache_persistent', TRUE);
  }

  if ($extension == 'Memcache') {

    // Support unix sockets of the format 'unix:///path/to/socket'.
    if ($host == 'unix') {
      // Use full protocol and path as expected by Memcache extension.
      $host = $server;
      $port = 0;
    }
    else if (!isset($port)) {
      register_shutdown_function('watchdog', 'memcache', 'You have specified an invalid address of "!server" in settings.php which does not include a port. Please review README.txt for proper configuration. You must specify both a server address and port such as "!ip" or "!host", or a unix socket such as "!socket".', array('!server' => $server, '!ip' => t('127.0.0.1:11211'), '!host' => t('localhost:11211'), '!socket' => t('unix:///path/to/socket')), WATCHDOG_WARNING);
    }

    // When using the PECL memcache extension, we must use ->(p)connect
    // for the first connection.
    if (!$connection) {
      $track_errors = ini_set('track_errors', '1');
      $php_errormsg = '';

      // The Memcache extension requires us to use (p)connect for the first
      // server we connect to.
      if ($memcache_persistent) {
        $rc = @$memcache->pconnect($host, $port);
      }
      else {
        $rc = @$memcache->connect($host, $port);
      }
      if (!empty($php_errormsg)) {
        register_shutdown_function('watchdog', 'memcache', 'Exception caught in dmemcache_connect while connecting to !host:!port: !msg', array('!host' => $host, '!port' => $port, '!msg' => $php_errormsg), WATCHDOG_WARNING);
        $php_errormsg = '';
      }
      ini_set('track_errors', $track_errors);
    }
    else {
      $rc = $memcache->addServer($host, $port, $memcache_persistent);
    }
  }
  elseif ($extension == 'Memcached') {
    // Support unix sockets of the format 'unix:///path/to/socket'.
    if ($host == 'unix') {
      // Strip 'unix://' as expected by Memcached extension.
      $host = substr($server, 7);
      $port = 0;
    }
    else if (!isset($port)) {
      register_shutdown_function('watchdog', 'memcache', 'You have specified an invalid address of "!server" in settings.php which does not include a port. Please review README.txt for proper configuration. You must specify both a server address and port such as "!ip" or "!host", or a unix socket such as "!socket".', array('!server' => $server, '!ip' => t('127.0.0.1:11211'), '!host' => t('localhost:11211'), '!socket' => t('unix:///path/to/socket')), WATCHDOG_WARNING);
    }
    if ($memcache_persistent) {
      $servers = $memcache->getServerList();
      $match = FALSE;
      foreach ($servers as $s) {
        if ($s['host'] == $host && $s['port'] == $port) {
          $match = TRUE;
          break;
        }
      }
      if (!$match) {
        $rc = $memcache->addServer($host, $port);
      }
      else {
        $rc = TRUE;
      }
    }
    else {
      $rc = $memcache->addServer($host, $port);
    }
  }
  else {
    $rc = FALSE;
  }
  return $rc;
}

/**
 * Close the connection to the memcache instance.
 */
function dmemcache_close($memcache) {
  $extension = dmemcache_extension();
  if ($extension == 'Memcache' && $memcache instanceof Memcache) {
    $rc = @$memcache->close;
  }
  elseif ($extension == 'Memcached' && $memcache instanceof Memcached) {
    $rc = @$memcache->quit;
  }
  else {
    $rc = FALSE;
  }
  return $rc;
}

/**
 * Return a Memcache object for the specified bin.
 *
 * Note that there is nothing preventing developers from calling this function
 * directly to get the Memcache object. Do this if you need functionality not
 * provided by this API or if you need to use legacy code. Otherwise, use the
 * dmemcache (get, set, delete, flush) API functions provided here.
 *
 * @param string $bin
 *   The bin which is to be used.
 * @param bool $flush
 *   Defaults to FALSE. Rebuild the bin/server/cache mapping.
 *
 * @return mixed
 *   A Memcache object, or FALSE on failure.
 */
function dmemcache_object($bin = NULL, $flush = FALSE) {
  static $memcache_cache = array();
  static $memcache_servers = array();
  static $memcache_bins = array();
  static $failed_connections = array();

  if ($flush) {
    if (!empty($memcache_cache)) {
      foreach ($memcache_cache as $cluster) {
        if ($extension == 'Memcache' && $cluster instanceof Memcache) {
          $rc = @$cluster->close;
        }
        elseif ($extension == 'Memcached' && $cluster instanceof Memcached) {
          $rc = @$cluster->quit;
        }
        $memcache_cache = array();
      }
    }
  }

  $extension = dmemcache_extension();

  if (empty($memcache_cache) || empty($memcache_cache[$bin])) {
    if (empty($memcache_servers)) {
      // Load the variables from settings.php if set.
      $memcache_servers = variable_get('memcache_servers', array('127.0.0.1:11211' => 'default'));
      $memcache_bins = variable_get('memcache_bins', array('cache' => 'default'));
    }

    // If not manually set, default this cluster to 'default'.
    $cluster = empty($memcache_bins[$bin]) ? 'default' : $memcache_bins[$bin];

    // If not manually set, map this bin to 'cache' which maps to the 'default'
    // cluster.
    if (empty($memcache_bins[$bin]) && !empty($memcache_cache['cache'])) {
      $memcache_cache[$bin] = &$memcache_cache['cache'];
    }
    else {
      // Create a new memcache object for each cluster.
      $memcache = dmemcache_instance($bin);

      // Track whether or not we've opened any memcache connections.
      $connection = FALSE;

      // Link all the servers to this cluster.
      foreach ($memcache_servers as $server => $c) {
        if ($c == $cluster && !isset($failed_connections[$server])) {
          $rc = dmemcache_connect($memcache, $server, $connection);
          if ($rc !== FALSE) {
            // We've made at least one successful connection.
            $connection = TRUE;
          }
          else {
            // Memcache connection failure. We can't log to watchdog directly
            // because we're in an early Drupal bootstrap phase where watchdog
            // is non-functional. Instead, register a shutdown handler so it
            // gets recorded at the end of the page load.
            register_shutdown_function('watchdog', 'memcache', 'Failed to connect to memcache server: !server', array('!server' => $server), WATCHDOG_ERROR);
            $failed_connections[$server] = FALSE;
          }
        }
      }
      if ($connection) {
        // Map the current bin with the new Memcache object.
        $memcache_cache[$bin] = $memcache;

        // Now that all the servers have been mapped to this cluster, look for
        // other bins that belong to the cluster and map them too.
        foreach ($memcache_bins as $b => $c) {
          if ($c == $cluster && $b != $bin) {
            // Map this bin and cluster by reference.
            $memcache_cache[$b] = &$memcache_cache[$bin];
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }

  return empty($memcache_cache[$bin]) ? FALSE : $memcache_cache[$bin];
}

/**
 * Prefixes a key and ensures it is url safe.
 *
 * @param string $key
 *   The key to prefix and encode.
 * @param string $bin
 *   The cache bin which the key applies to.
 * @param string $multiple
 *   If TRUE will return all possible prefix variations.
 *
 * @return string or array
 *   The prefixed and encoded key(s).
 */
function dmemcache_key($key, $bin = 'cache', $multiple = FALSE) {
  $prefix = '';
  if ($prefixes = variable_get('memcache_key_prefix', '')) {
    if (is_array($prefixes)) {
      // If no custom prefix defined for bin, use 'default'.
      if (empty($prefixes[$bin])) {
        $bin = 'default';
      }
      if (!empty($prefixes[$bin])) {
        // There can be multiple prefixes specified for each bin.
        if (is_array($prefixes[$bin])) {
          // Optionally return key with all prefixes.
          if ($multiple) {
            $prefix = array();
            foreach ($prefixes[$bin] as $pre) {
              $prefix[] = $pre . '-';
            }
          }
          // Otherwise just return a single prefixed key.
          else {
            $prefix = $prefixes[$bin][0] . '-';
          }
        }
      }
    }
    else {
      $prefix = $prefixes . '-';
    }
  }

  if (!is_array($prefix)) {
    $prefix = array($prefix);
  }
  $full_keys = array();
  foreach ($prefix as $p) {
    // When simpletest is running, emulate the simpletest database prefix here
    // to avoid the child site setting cache entries in the parent site.
    if (isset($GLOBALS['drupal_test_info']['test_run_id'])) {
      $p .= $GLOBALS['drupal_test_info']['test_run_id'];
    }
    $full_keys[] = urlencode($p . $bin . '-' . $key);
  }

  // Memcache truncates keys longer than 250 characters[*]. This could lead to
  // cache collisions, so we hash keys that are longer than this while still
  // retaining as much of the key bin and name as possible to aid in debugging.
  // The hashing algorithm used is configurable, with sha1 selected by default
  // as it performs quickly with minimal collisions. You can enforce shorter
  // keys by setting memcache_key_max_length in settings.php.
  // [*]https://github.com/memcached/memcached/blob/master/doc/protocol.txt#L47
  $maxlen = variable_get('memcache_key_max_length', 250);

  foreach ($full_keys as $k => $full_key) {
    if (strlen($full_key) > $maxlen) {
      $full_keys[$k] = urlencode($prefix[$k] . $bin) . '-' . hash(variable_get('memcache_key_hash_algorithm', 'sha1'), $key);
      $full_keys[$k] .= '-' . substr(urlencode($key), 0, ($maxlen - 1) - strlen($full_keys[$k]) - 1);
    }
  }

  if ($multiple) {
    // An array of prefixed keys.
    return $full_keys;
  }
  else {
    // A single prefixed key.
    return array_shift($full_keys);
  }
}

/**
 * Track active keys with multi-piece values, necessary for efficient cleanup.
 *
 * We can't use variable_get/set for tracking this information because if the
 * variables array grows >1M and has to be split into pieces we'd get stuck in
 * an infinite loop. Storing this information in memcache means it can be lost,
 * but in that case the pieces will still eventually be auto-expired by
 * memcache.
 *
 * @param string $cid
 *   The cid of the root multi-piece value.
 * @param integer $exp
 *   Timestamp when the cached item expires. If NULL, the $cid will be deleted.
 *
 * @return bool
 *   TRUE on succes, FALSE otherwise.
 */
function dmemcache_piece_cache_set($cid, $exp = NULL) {
  // Always refresh cached copy to minimize multi-thread race window.
  $piece_cache = &drupal_static('dmemcache_piece_cache', array());
  $piece_cache = dmemcache_get('__dmemcache_piece_cache');

  if (isset($exp)) {
    if ($exp <= 0) {
      // If no expiration time is set, defaults to 30 days.
      $exp = REQUEST_TIME + 2592000;
    }
    $piece_cache[$cid] = $exp;
  }
  else {
    unset($piece_cache[$cid]);
  }

  return dmemcache_set('__dmemcache_piece_cache', $piece_cache);
}

/**
 * Determine if a key has multi-piece values.
 *
 *
 * @param string $cid
 *   The cid to check for multi-piece values.
 *
 * @return integer
 *   Expiration time if key has multi-piece values, otherwise FALSE.
 */
function dmemcache_piece_cache_get($name) {
  static $drupal_static_fast;
  if (!isset($drupal_static_fast)) {
    $drupal_static_fast['piece_cache'] = &drupal_static('dmemcache_piece_cache', FALSE);
  }
  $piece_cache = &$drupal_static_fast['piece_cache'];

  if (!is_array($piece_cache)) {
    $piece_cache = dmemcache_get('__dmemcache_piece_cache');
    // On a website with no over-sized cache pieces, initialize the variable so
    // we never load it more than once per page versus once per DELETE.
    if (!is_array($piece_cache)) {
      dmemcache_set('__dmemcache_piece_cache', array());
    }
  }

  if (isset($piece_cache[$name])) {
    // Return the expiration time of the multi-piece cache item.
    return $piece_cache[$name];
  }
  // Item doesn't have multiple pieces.
  return FALSE;
}

/**
 * Collect statistics if enabled.
 *
 * Optimized function to determine whether or not we should be collecting
 * statistics. Also starts a timer to track how long individual memcache
 * operations take.
 *
 * @return bool
 *   TRUE or FALSE if statistics should be collected.
 */
function dmemcache_stats_init() {
  static $drupal_static_fast;

  if (!isset($drupal_static_fast)) {
    $drupal_static_fast = &drupal_static(__FUNCTION__, array('variable_checked' => NULL, 'user_access_checked' => NULL));
  }
  $variable_checked = &$drupal_static_fast['variable_checked'];
  $user_access_checked  = &$drupal_static_fast['user_access_checked'];

  // Confirm DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_VARIABLES has been reached. We don't use
  // drupal_get_bootstrap_phase() as it's buggy. We can use variable_get() here
  // because _drupal_bootstrap_variables() includes module.inc immediately
  // after it calls variable_initialize().
  if (!isset($variable_checked) && function_exists('module_list')) {
    $variable_checked = variable_get('show_memcache_statistics', FALSE);
  }
  // If statistics are enabled we need to check user access.
  if (!empty($variable_checked) && !isset($user_access_checked) && !empty($GLOBALS['user']) && function_exists('user_access')) {
    // Statistics are enabled and the $user object has been populated, so check
    // that the user has access to view them.
    $user_access_checked = user_access('access memcache statistics');
  }
  // Return whether or not statistics are enabled and the user can access them.
  if ((!isset($variable_checked) || $variable_checked) && (!isset($user_access_checked) || $user_access_checked)) {
    timer_start('dmemcache');
    return TRUE;
  }
  else {
    return FALSE;
  }
}

/**
 * Save memcache statistics to be displayed at end of page generation.
 *
 * @param string $action
 *   The action being performed (get, set, etc...).
 * @param string $bin
 *   The memcache bin the action is being performed in.
 * @param array $keys
 *   Keyed array in the form (string)$cid => (bool)$success. The keys the
 *   action is being performed on, and whether or not it was a success.
 */
function dmemcache_stats_write($action, $bin, $keys) {
  global $_dmemcache_stats;
  // Determine how much time elapsed to execute this action.
  $time = timer_read('dmemcache');
  // Build the 'all' and 'ops' arrays displayed by memcache_admin.module.
  foreach ($keys as $key => $success) {
    $_dmemcache_stats['all'][] = array(
      number_format($time, 2),
      $action,
      $bin,
      $key,
      $success ? 'hit' : 'miss',
    );
    if (!isset($_dmemcache_stats['ops'][$action])) {
      $_dmemcache_stats['ops'][$action] = array($action, 0, 0, 0);
    }
    $_dmemcache_stats['ops'][$action][1] += $time;
    if ($success) {
      $_dmemcache_stats['ops'][$action][2]++;
    }
    else {
      $_dmemcache_stats['ops'][$action][3]++;
    }
  }
  // Reset the dmemcache timer for timing the next memcache operation.
}

/**
 * Write to a debug log when enabled.
 *
 * @param string $action
 *   The action being performed (get, set, etc...).
 * @param string $bin
 *   The memcache bin the action is being performed in.
 * @param array $rc
 *   The return code of the action performed.
 */
function _dmemcache_write_debug($action, $bin, $key, $rc) {
  static $memcache_debug_log = NULL;
  static $memcache_debug_verbose = NULL;
  if ($memcache_debug_log === NULL) {
    $memcache_debug_log = variable_get('memcache_debug_log', FALSE);
    $memcache_debug_verbose = variable_get('memcache_debug_verbose', FALSE);
  }
  if (($action == 'get' || $action == 'getMulti') && !$memcache_debug_verbose) {
    return;
  }
  else if ($memcache_debug_log) {
    $debug_log = strtr(variable_get('memcache_debug_log_format', "!timestamp|!action|!bin|!cid|!rc\n"), array('!timestamp' => date(variable_get('memcache_debug_time_format', 'U')), '!action' => $action, '!bin' => $bin, '!cid' => $key, '!rc' => (int) $rc));
    if (file_put_contents($memcache_debug_log, $debug_log, FILE_APPEND) === FALSE) {
      // This can lead to a lot of watchdog entries...
      register_shutdown_function('watchdog', 'memcache', 'Unable to write to debug log at !debug_file: !debug_log.', array('!debug_file' => $memcache_debug_file, '!debug_log' => $debug_log), WATCHDOG_ERROR);
    }
  }
}